The Application of Force Majeure and Hardship Clauses in Ethiopia and China in Light of International Law in Situations of COVID19 Pandemic: The Law and Practice

Dessie Tilahun Ayalew


COVID-19 pandemic has multiple consequences and knocked multiple disciplines after its occurrence throughout the globe. Among the disciplines touched by the pandemic is the role of law presented as an excuse for the responsibility of non-performance of owing to the pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic highly affects international commitments, such as international investment contracts and other similar undertakings. Therefore, this paper questioned the status of international law in giving immunities for states for non-performance of international obligations during the pandemic periods. In doing so, the paper tried to compare and contrast the legal system of China and Ethiopia by taking international commercial law as a mirror. The findings revealed that most jurisdictions give immunities for the non-performance of the states’ commitments owing to the COVID-19 pandemic. 

Key Words

COVID-19; Force Majeure; Hardship Clauses; International Commercial Contract; International legal responsibility; CISG; China; Ethiopia

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