Implementation of Inclusive Education: A Region-wide Study in the Philippines

Joel T. Cayabyab


To improve the implementation of inclusive education (IE)in the Philippines would require assessment of the status of its implementation. This study identified the level of implementation of IE in Region I, Philippines using a validated survey questionnaire administered among one hundred eighty-one (181) faculty members of four (4) state universities and colleges in 2016. Findings revealed that generally inclusive education was ‘moderately implemented’. Further, of the three areas assessed, Teachers’ Preparation and Competence was rated as high implementation, while both Physical Plant and Facilities and Academic Policies was rated as moderate implementation. Furthermore, age, years in service, academic rank, and highest educational attainment revealed a significant difference in implementation while sex does not show significant difference. These findings could be used to enhance the implementation of inclusive education in Region I, Philippines and in overseas with similar context.

Full Text:



Avramidis, E. & Kalyvam E. (2007). The influence of teaching experience and professional

development on Greek teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion. European Journal of Special Needs Education, Vol 22, No 4

Dignath, C., Rimm-Kaufman, S., van Ewijk, E., & Kunter, M. (2022). Teachers’ Beliefs

About Inclusive Education and Insights on What Contributes to those Beliefs: A Meta-analytical Study. Educational Psychology Review, Vol. 34, DOI: 10.10007

Ertmer, P. A. (2005). Teacher pedagogical beliefs: The final frontier in our quest for

technology integration? Educational Technology Research and Development, Vol. 53, No. 4, pp25-39

Hattie, J. A. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of 800+ meta-analyses on achievement.

Routledge. DOI: https:// doi. org/ 10. 4324/ 97802 03887 332

Nilholm, C. (2021). Research about inclusive education in 2020 – How can we improve our

theories in order to change practice? European Journal of Special Needs Education, Vol. 36, No. 3, 358-370, DOI: 10.1080/08856257.2020.1754547

UNESCO. (1994). The Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action on Special Needs

Education. World Conference on Special Needs Education: Access and Quality.

Zhing, P. & Zhang, K. (2022). Inclusive education in New Zealand: Voices from early

childhood teachers. Support for Learning. Vol. 37, No. 4, pp. 538-552


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.