Managing a Green Campus: Motivation for Student Recycling Behavior

Nur Faithzah Jamian, Sio-Hong Tih


This study was conducted to examine the factors that influenced students’ recycling behavior in university. This research adopted the Expectancy Theory in explaining the motivational factors of university students’ environmental behavior in terms of recycling. The dependent variable was student recycling behavior, while the independent variables were perceived recycling expectation, university norm expectancy, recycling service expectancy, and perceived recycling reward.  Perceived recycling expectation is comprised of three elements, namely management priority, performance-expectancy, and effort-expectancy.  The perceived recycling reward was analyzed with regards to intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. This study used a quantitative survey method, and data was collected using a set of structured questionnaires. The respondents involved were 313 undergraduate students from public and private universities. The finding shows that university norm expectancy, recycling service expectancy, and extrinsic reward were significant motivational factors for students’ recycling behavior, whereas perceived recycling expectation was not a significant motivational factor for students’ recycling behavior.  

Full Text:



Bezzina, F.H., & Dimech, S. (2011). Investigating the determinants of recycling behaviour in Malta. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, 22(4), 463-485.

Buch, K., & Tolentino, A. (2006). Employee perceptions of the rewards associated with six sigma. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 19(3), 356-364.

Chiu, Y.T. H., Fang, S.C., & Tseng, C.C. (2010). Early versus potential adopters: Exploring the antecedents of use intention in the context of retail service innovations. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 38(6), 443–459.

Dahle, M., & Neumayer, E. (2001). Institutions in London , UK Overcoming barriers to campus greening. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 2(2), 139–160.

Davis, G., O’Callaghan, F., & Knox, K. (2009). Sustainable attitudes and behaviours amongst a sample of non-academic staff: A case study from an Information Services Department, Griffith University, Brisbane. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 10(2), 136–151.

Fraj, E., & Martinez, E. (2006). Environmental values and lifestyles as determining factors of ecological consumer behaviour: an empirical analysis. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 23(3), 133-144.

Fudge, R., & Schlacter, J. (1999). Motivating employees to act ethically: An expectancy theory approach. Journal of Business Ethics, 18(3), 295-304.

Johnson, R. R. (2009). Explaining patrol officer drug arrest activity through expectancy theory. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 32(1), 6–20.

Johnson, R. R. (2010). Making domestic violence arrests: a test of expectancy theory. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 33(3), 531-547.

Lee, S. (2007). Vrrom’s expectancy theory and the public library customer motivation model, Library Review, 56 (9), 788-796.

Lunenburg, F.C. (2011). Expectancy Theory of Motivation: Motivating by Altering Expectations, International Journal of Management, Business, and Administration, 15(1), 1-6.

Mahmud, S.N.D., & Osman, K. (2010). The determinants of recycling intention behavior among the Malaysian school students: an application of theory of planned behaviour. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 9, 119–124.

Mehta, R., Anderson, R.E., & Dubinsky, A.J. (2000). The perceived importance of sales managers’ rewards: a career stage perspective. Journal of Business & Inudstrial Marketing, 15(7), 507-524.

Olson, L., Arvai, J., & Thorp, L. (2011). Mental models research to inform community outreach for a campus recycling program. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 12(4), 322–337.

Pike, L., Shannon, T., Lawrimore, K., McGee, A., Taylor, M., & Lamoreaux, G. (2003). Science education and sustainability initiatives: A campus recycling case study shows the importance of opportunity. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 4(3), 218–229.

Savolainen, R. (2012). Expectancy-value beliefs and information needs as motivators for task-based information seeking, Journal of Documentation, 68(4), 492-511.

Tih, S. H., & Zainol, Z. (2012). Minimizing Waste and Encouraging Green Practices. Jurnal Ekonomi Malaysia, 46(1), 157-164.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.